Market town privileges were granted in 1441, but growth stagnated in the 17th century as the city suffered blockades and bombardments during the Swedish Wars.
In the 19th century it was occupied twice by German troops during the Schleswig Wars but avoided destruction.
Archaeologists have conducted several excavations in the inner city since the 1960s revealing wells, streets, homes and workshops.
In the buildings and adjoining archaeological layers, everyday utensils like combs, jewellery and basic multi-purpose tools from approximately the year 900 have been found.
There are strong indications of a former royal residence from the Viking Age in Viby, a few kilometres south of the Aarhus city centre.